Paranoiac Face

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© Salvador Dalí, Fundació Gala-Salvador Dalí, Figueres, 2007

image 2 © Salvador Dalí, Fundació Gala-Salvador Dalí, Figueres, 2007

© Salvador Dalí, Fundació Gala-Salvador Dalí, Figueres, 2007

Cat. no. 404

Visage paranoïaque (Paranoiac Face)

Edward James

Auctioned at Christie's, West Dean Park, Chichester, West Sussex, June 5th, 1986

In the text "Communication: Visage paranoïaque" Dalí explains the origin of this double image, a common technique in works of this period: " After a study, when I was obsessed in a deep reflection on Picasso's faces, in particular those of the black period, I looked for an address in a pile of papers and suddenly I saw myself altered by the reproduction of a face I believe corresponded to Picasso, a face absolutely unknown. Suddenly, this face disappeared and I realized the illusion (?). The analysis of the paranoiac image in question allowed me to recover, using a symbolic interpretation, all the ideas that preceded the vision of the face. André Breton has identified the face with that of Sade, which matches the particular preoccupation Breton has about Sade. In the hair of the face in question, Breton saw a powdery wig, while I saw an unpainted fragment of the canvas, which is often found in Picasso's style." ("Le Surréalisme au Service de la Révolution", number 3, December 1931). Moreover, in the "La Conquête de l'irrationnel" (1935), Dalí states that this painting can be contemplated both horizontally and vertically (image 2).

1936, New York, The Museum of Modern Art, Fantastic art dada surrealism, 09-12-1936 - 17-01-1937, cat. no. 320

1936, London, New Burlington Galleries, International Surrealist Exhibition, 11-06-1936 - 04-07-1936, cat. no. 62

1999, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Surrealism: two private eyes, the Nesuhi Ertegun and Daniel Filipacchi collections, 04-06-1999 - 12-09-1999, cat. no. 55

Dalí, Salvador, La Conquête de l'irrationnel, Éditions Surréalistes, Paris, 1935, il. 30

Barr, Alfred H., Jr., Fantastic art dada surrealism, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1936, il. 320

s. a., Marvelous & Fantastic, Time, New York, 1936, p. 61

Frey, John G., From Dada to Surrealism, Parnassus, New York, 1936, p. 12

Morse, A. Reynolds | Tapié, Michel, Dalí: a study of his life and work, New York graphic Society, Greenwich [Connecticut], 1958, p. 44

Dalí, Salvador, Le Mythe tragique de l'Angélus de Millet : interprétation "paranoïaque-critique", Jean-Jacques Pauvert, Paris, 1963, p. 28

Romero, Luis, Todo Dalí en un rostro, Blume, Barcelona | Madrid, 1975, p. 205

He näkevät mitä me emme näe. Turkulaista surrealismia 1932-1976, Turun Taidemuseo | WälmÑi Aaltosen museo, [S. l.], 1977, p. 9, il. 8

Dalí, Salvador, El Mito trágico del Angelus de Millet, Tusquets, Barcelona, 1978, p. 27

Dalí, Salvador, Oui 1. La révolution paranoïaque-critique, Denoël/Gonthier, Paris, 1979, n. p. (detail)

Dalí, Salvador, Oui 2. L'archangélisme scientifique, Denoël/Gonthier, Paris, 1979, p. [41] (detail)

Gorsen, Peter, Kunst und Krankheit, Metamorphosen der ästhetischen Einbildungskraft, Europäische Verlagsanstalt, Frankfurt am main, 1980, p. 195

Dalí, Salvador, Sì. La rivoluzione paranoico-critica. L'arcangelismo scientifico, Rizzoli, Milano, 1980, p. 41

Gómez de Liaño, Ignacio, Dalí, Polígrafa, Barcelona, 1983, p. 15

El Surrealismo, Cátedra, Madrid, 1983, p. [162]

Guglielmi, Maria Gabriella, Fotografia e paranoia. L'occhio di Salvador Dalí, Arnica, Roma, 1983, p. 24

Effetto Arcimboldo, Bompiani, Milano, 1987, p. 289

Grands Peintres : Dalí, COGEDI-PRESSE, Paris, 1988, cover, p. 2

Entender la pintura : Dalí, Orbis - Fabri, Barcelona, 1989, p. 22

Moorhouse, Paul, Dalí, Magna Books, Wigston [Anglaterra], 1990, p. 19

Dalí: the Salvador Dalí museum collection, Bulfinch, Boston. Toronto. London, 1991, p. 161

Fer, Briony | Batchelor, David | Wood, Paul, Realism, rationalism, surrealism : art between the wars, Yale University Press | Open University, [S.l.], 1993, p. 224 (indirect image)

Salvador Dalí, Polígrafa, Barcelona, 1994, n. p.

Descharnes, Robert | Néret, Gilles, Salvador Dalí, 1904 -1989, Benedikt Taschen, Köln, 1994, p. 249

Dalí, Cercle d'Art, Paris, 1994, p. 7

Carter, David, Salvador Dalí, Chelsea House, New York - Philadelphia, 1995, p. 14 (indirect image)

A surreal life: Edward James, 1907-1984, Royal Pavillion, Librairies & Museums, Brighton & Hove | Philip Wilson, London, 1998, p. 53

Surrealism: two private eyes, the Nesuhi Ertegun and Daniel Filipacchi collections, Guggenheim Museum Publications, New York, 1999, p. 110

Dalí's optical illusions, Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford, Connecticut, 2000, p. 31

Schmitt, Patrice, Étude psychanalytique de la création chez Salvador Dalí, Lacour-Ollé, Nimes, 2004, il. 2.6

Caws, Mary Ann, Surrealism, Phaidon, London, 2004, p. 36

Dalí, Salvador, Obra completa, Ediciones Destino | Fundació Gala-Salvador Dalí | Sociedad Estatal de Conmemoraciones Culturales, Barcelona | [Figueres] | [Madrid], 2005, p. 421

Dalí, Unidad Editorial, [S. l.], 2005, p. 137

Wenzel, Angela, The Mad, mad, mad world of Salvador Dali, Prestel, Munich, 2007, p. 22

- | - | - | Aufraise, Marc | Aufraise, Marc | Barbier de reulle, Caroline | Peyser-Verhaar, Marijke | Ruffa, Astrid | Ha, Les Cahiers du Musée national d'art moderne [Coberta] | [Sumari] | Éditorial | Les prémices du théâtre photographique de Salvador Dalí (1932-1933) | Portraits de fantasmes | Salvador Dalí et la musiqu, Éditions du Centre Pompidou, Paris, 2012, p. 76-77

Takigushi, Shûzô, Dalí : Tokio, 1939, Notari, Geneve, 2012, il. 33 (indirect image)

Jeffett, William | Lahuerta, Juan José, Picasso-Dalí, Dalí-Picasso, Museu Picasso | Salvador Dalí Museum, Barcelona | Sant Petersburg, 2014, p. 50 (indirect image)

Provenance

Edward James

Auctioned at Christie's, West Dean Park, Chichester, West Sussex, June 5th, 1986

Remarks

In the text "Communication: Visage paranoïaque" Dalí explains the origin of this double image, a common technique in works of this period: " After a study, when I was obsessed in a deep reflection on Picasso's faces, in particular those of the black period, I looked for an address in a pile of papers and suddenly I saw myself altered by the reproduction of a face I believe corresponded to Picasso, a face absolutely unknown. Suddenly, this face disappeared and I realized the illusion (?). The analysis of the paranoiac image in question allowed me to recover, using a symbolic interpretation, all the ideas that preceded the vision of the face. André Breton has identified the face with that of Sade, which matches the particular preoccupation Breton has about Sade. In the hair of the face in question, Breton saw a powdery wig, while I saw an unpainted fragment of the canvas, which is often found in Picasso's style." ("Le Surréalisme au Service de la Révolution", number 3, December 1931). Moreover, in the "La Conquête de l'irrationnel" (1935), Dalí states that this painting can be contemplated both horizontally and vertically (image 2).

Exhibitions

1936, New York, The Museum of Modern Art, Fantastic art dada surrealism, 09-12-1936 - 17-01-1937, cat. no. 320

1936, London, New Burlington Galleries, International Surrealist Exhibition, 11-06-1936 - 04-07-1936, cat. no. 62

1999, New York, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, Surrealism: two private eyes, the Nesuhi Ertegun and Daniel Filipacchi collections, 04-06-1999 - 12-09-1999, cat. no. 55

Bibliography

Dalí, Salvador, La Conquête de l'irrationnel, Éditions Surréalistes, Paris, 1935, il. 30

Barr, Alfred H., Jr., Fantastic art dada surrealism, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1936, il. 320

s. a., Marvelous & Fantastic, Time, New York, 1936, p. 61

Frey, John G., From Dada to Surrealism, Parnassus, New York, 1936, p. 12

Morse, A. Reynolds | Tapié, Michel, Dalí: a study of his life and work, New York graphic Society, Greenwich [Connecticut], 1958, p. 44

Dalí, Salvador, Le Mythe tragique de l'Angélus de Millet : interprétation "paranoïaque-critique", Jean-Jacques Pauvert, Paris, 1963, p. 28

Romero, Luis, Todo Dalí en un rostro, Blume, Barcelona | Madrid, 1975, p. 205

He näkevät mitä me emme näe. Turkulaista surrealismia 1932-1976, Turun Taidemuseo | WälmÑi Aaltosen museo, [S. l.], 1977, p. 9, il. 8

Dalí, Salvador, El Mito trágico del Angelus de Millet, Tusquets, Barcelona, 1978, p. 27

Dalí, Salvador, Oui 1. La révolution paranoïaque-critique, Denoël/Gonthier, Paris, 1979, n. p. (detail)

Dalí, Salvador, Oui 2. L'archangélisme scientifique, Denoël/Gonthier, Paris, 1979, p. [41] (detail)

Gorsen, Peter, Kunst und Krankheit, Metamorphosen der ästhetischen Einbildungskraft, Europäische Verlagsanstalt, Frankfurt am main, 1980, p. 195

Dalí, Salvador, Sì. La rivoluzione paranoico-critica. L'arcangelismo scientifico, Rizzoli, Milano, 1980, p. 41

Gómez de Liaño, Ignacio, Dalí, Polígrafa, Barcelona, 1983, p. 15

El Surrealismo, Cátedra, Madrid, 1983, p. [162]

Guglielmi, Maria Gabriella, Fotografia e paranoia. L'occhio di Salvador Dalí, Arnica, Roma, 1983, p. 24

Effetto Arcimboldo, Bompiani, Milano, 1987, p. 289

Grands Peintres : Dalí, COGEDI-PRESSE, Paris, 1988, cover, p. 2

Entender la pintura : Dalí, Orbis - Fabri, Barcelona, 1989, p. 22

Moorhouse, Paul, Dalí, Magna Books, Wigston [Anglaterra], 1990, p. 19

Dalí: the Salvador Dalí museum collection, Bulfinch, Boston. Toronto. London, 1991, p. 161

Fer, Briony | Batchelor, David | Wood, Paul, Realism, rationalism, surrealism : art between the wars, Yale University Press | Open University, [S.l.], 1993, p. 224 (indirect image)

Salvador Dalí, Polígrafa, Barcelona, 1994, n. p.

Descharnes, Robert | Néret, Gilles, Salvador Dalí, 1904 -1989, Benedikt Taschen, Köln, 1994, p. 249

Dalí, Cercle d'Art, Paris, 1994, p. 7

Carter, David, Salvador Dalí, Chelsea House, New York - Philadelphia, 1995, p. 14 (indirect image)

A surreal life: Edward James, 1907-1984, Royal Pavillion, Librairies & Museums, Brighton & Hove | Philip Wilson, London, 1998, p. 53

Surrealism: two private eyes, the Nesuhi Ertegun and Daniel Filipacchi collections, Guggenheim Museum Publications, New York, 1999, p. 110

Dalí's optical illusions, Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford, Connecticut, 2000, p. 31

Schmitt, Patrice, Étude psychanalytique de la création chez Salvador Dalí, Lacour-Ollé, Nimes, 2004, il. 2.6

Caws, Mary Ann, Surrealism, Phaidon, London, 2004, p. 36

Dalí, Salvador, Obra completa, Ediciones Destino | Fundació Gala-Salvador Dalí | Sociedad Estatal de Conmemoraciones Culturales, Barcelona | [Figueres] | [Madrid], 2005, p. 421

Dalí, Unidad Editorial, [S. l.], 2005, p. 137

Wenzel, Angela, The Mad, mad, mad world of Salvador Dali, Prestel, Munich, 2007, p. 22

- | - | - | Aufraise, Marc | Aufraise, Marc | Barbier de reulle, Caroline | Peyser-Verhaar, Marijke | Ruffa, Astrid | Ha, Les Cahiers du Musée national d'art moderne [Coberta] | [Sumari] | Éditorial | Les prémices du théâtre photographique de Salvador Dalí (1932-1933) | Portraits de fantasmes | Salvador Dalí et la musiqu, Éditions du Centre Pompidou, Paris, 2012, p. 76-77

Takigushi, Shûzô, Dalí : Tokio, 1939, Notari, Geneve, 2012, il. 33 (indirect image)

Jeffett, William | Lahuerta, Juan José, Picasso-Dalí, Dalí-Picasso, Museu Picasso | Salvador Dalí Museum, Barcelona | Sant Petersburg, 2014, p. 50 (indirect image)