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© Salvador Dalí, Fundació Gala-Salvador Dalí, Figueres, 2004 USA: © Salvador Dalí Museum Inc., St. Petersburg, FL, 2007

© Salvador Dalí, Fundació Gala-Salvador Dalí, Figueres, 2004 USA: © Salvador Dalí Museum Inc., St. Petersburg, FL, 2007

Cat. no. 250

El reflejo craneano (The Cranial Reflection)The Average Bureaucrat

Paul Éluard, Paris

Helena Rubinstein, New York

E. and A. Reynolds Morse, Cleveland (Ohio)

We have entitled this work "El reflejo craneano", in the belief that this is the picture Dalí presented as number 6 in the exhibition organized by La Gaceta de Arte at the Ateneo de Santa Cruz de Tenerife from 11 to 21 May 1935. This supposition is confirmed by the article by Domingo López Torres published in La Tarde on 17 May 1935, which give an accurate description of the work.

1935, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Ateneo de Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Exposición surrealista, 11-11-1935 - 21-05-1935, cat. no. 6

1938, Amsterdam, Galerie Robert, Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme, Spring 1938, cat. no. 26

1997, Valencia, IVAM Centre Julio González Generalitat Valenciana., El Objeto surrealista, 16-10-1997 - 04-01-1998, p. 193

1998, Liverpool, Tate Gallery Liverpool, Salvador Dalí: a mythology, 21-10-1998 - 31-01-1999, cat. no. 6

2000, St. Petersburg, Florida, Salvador Dalí Museum, James Rosenquist: paintings, 29-04-2000 - 10-09-2000, cat. no. 24

2002, París, Centre Pompidou, La Révolution surréaliste, 06-03-2002 - 24-06-2002, no reference

2002, Düsseldorf, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Surrealismus 1914 - 1944 : Dalí, Max Ernst, Magritte, Miró, Picasso..., 20-07-2002 - 24-11-2002, no reference

2006, Tokio, Ueno Royal Museum, Salvador Dali centennial retrospective, 23-09-2006 - 04-01-2007, cat. no. 14

Keiffer, Elaine Brown, Madame Rubinstein, Life, Chicago, IL, 1941, p. [36] (indirect image)

Dali par Dali, Draeger, [Paris], 1970, p. 25 (detail)

Morse, A. Reynolds, A Dalí primer, The Reynolds Morse Foundation, Cleveland [Ohio], 1970, p. 18

Ninety-three oils by Salvador Dalí : 1917-1970, The Salvador Dali Museum, Cleveland, 1973, p. 127, p. 152

Salvador Dalí ... a panorama of his art, The Salvador Dali Museum, Cleveland, 1974, p. 54, p. 127, p. 152

Dopagne, Jacques, Dalí, Fernand Hazan, Paris, 1974, il. 17 (detail)

Dalí, Salvador | Passeron, René, Salvador Dalí, Filipacchi, Paris, 1978, p. 28

Salvador Dalí: rétrospective, 1920-1980, Centre Georges Pompidou, Musée National d'Art moderne, Paris, 1979, p. 165

Salvador Dalí, selected works, Filipacchi, New York, 1979, p. 28

Baron, Jacques, Anthologie plastique du surrealisme, Filipacchi, Paris, 1980, p. 13 (indirect image)

Homage to Dalí, Chartwell Books, Secaucus, New Jersey, [1980], p. 128

Alexandrian, Sarane, Dalí, Fernand Hazan, Paris, 1985, il. 17 (detail)

Surrealist drawings, The Salvador Dalí Foundation, St. Petersburg [Florida], 1988, n. p.

Dalí: the Salvador Dalí museum collection, Bulfinch, Boston. Toronto. London, 1991, il. 38

Rojas, Carlos, Salvador Dalí, or the art of spitting on your mother's portrait, The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park [Pennsylvania], 1993, il . 8

Descharnes, Robert | Néret, Gilles, Salvador Dalí, 1904 -1989, Benedikt Taschen, Köln, 1994, p. 156

Wach, Kenneth, Salvador Dalí : masterpieces from the collection of the Salvador Dalí Museum, Harry N. Abrams | Salvador Dalí Museum, New York | St. Petersburg, Florida, 1996, p. 61

Finkelstein, Haim, Salvador Dalí's art and writing, 1927-1942 : the metamorphoses of Narcissus, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996, p. 146

Guigon, Emmanuel, Óscar Domínguez, Gobierno de Canarias. Viceconsejeria de Cultura y Deportes, Islas Canarias, 1996, p. 133 (indirect image) (detail)

Gaceta de arte y su época, 1932-1936, Centro Atlántico de Arte Moderno | Gobierno de Canarias. Viceconsejería de Cultura y Deportes, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | [S.l.], 1997, p. 237 (indirect image)

Radford, Robert, Dalí, Phaidon, London, 1997, p. 150

El Objeto surrealista, IVAM Centre Julio González | Generalitat Valenciana. Conselleria de Cultura, Educació i Ciència, [València], 1997, p. 193 (indirect image)

Durozoi, Gérard, Histoire du mouvement surréaliste, Hazan, Paris, 1997, p. 297

Ades, Dawn | Bradley, Fiona, Salvador Dalí: a mythology, Tate Gallery Publishing, London, 1998, p. 30

Fanés, Fèlix, El Gran masturbador, Electa, Madrid, 2000, p. 52

James Rosenquist: paintings | James Rosenquist: selects Dalí, Salvador Dalí Museum, St. Petersburg, Florida, 2000, p. 50

Lubar, Robert S., The Salvador Dalí Museum collection, Bulfinch, Boston - New York - London, 2000, p. 63

Dalí, Bompiani, [S.l.], 2004, p. 116

Dalí, un creador dissident, Destino, Barcelona, 2004, p. 199

Fanés, Fèlix, La Pintura y sus sombras : cuatro estudios sobre Salvador Dalí, Museo de Teruel, Teruel, 2004, p. 99

Salvador Dali centennial retrospective, Ueno Royal Museum, Ueno, 2006, p. 59, p. 58 (detail)

Dalí & film, Tate Publishing, London, 2007, p. 119

Roland Penrose y el surrealismo : mirar de reojo, Fundación Pablo Ruiz Picasso, Málaga, 2008, p. 229 (indirect image), p. 230 (indirect image)

Salvador Dalí : the late work, High Museum of Art | Yale University Press, Atlanta | New Haven and London, 2010, p. 130

Surreal objects : three-dimensional works from Dalí to Man Ray, Hatje Cantz | Schirn Kunsthalle, Frankfurt | Frankfurt, 2011, p. 23

Encuentros con los años '30, La Fábrica | MNCARS, Madrid | Madrid, 2012, p. 98 (indirect image), p. 99 (indirect image)

Dalí i els seus tallers, Das Edicions, Figueres, 2013, p. 22-23 (indirect image)

Provenance

Paul Éluard, Paris

Helena Rubinstein, New York

E. and A. Reynolds Morse, Cleveland (Ohio)

Remarks

We have entitled this work "El reflejo craneano", in the belief that this is the picture Dalí presented as number 6 in the exhibition organized by La Gaceta de Arte at the Ateneo de Santa Cruz de Tenerife from 11 to 21 May 1935. This supposition is confirmed by the article by Domingo López Torres published in La Tarde on 17 May 1935, which give an accurate description of the work.

Exhibitions

1935, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Ateneo de Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Exposición surrealista, 11-11-1935 - 21-05-1935, cat. no. 6

1938, Amsterdam, Galerie Robert, Exposition Internationale du Surréalisme, Spring 1938, cat. no. 26

1997, Valencia, IVAM Centre Julio González Generalitat Valenciana., El Objeto surrealista, 16-10-1997 - 04-01-1998, p. 193

1998, Liverpool, Tate Gallery Liverpool, Salvador Dalí: a mythology, 21-10-1998 - 31-01-1999, cat. no. 6

2000, St. Petersburg, Florida, Salvador Dalí Museum, James Rosenquist: paintings, 29-04-2000 - 10-09-2000, cat. no. 24

2002, París, Centre Pompidou, La Révolution surréaliste, 06-03-2002 - 24-06-2002, no reference

2002, Düsseldorf, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Surrealismus 1914 - 1944 : Dalí, Max Ernst, Magritte, Miró, Picasso..., 20-07-2002 - 24-11-2002, no reference

2006, Tokio, Ueno Royal Museum, Salvador Dali centennial retrospective, 23-09-2006 - 04-01-2007, cat. no. 14

Bibliography

Keiffer, Elaine Brown, Madame Rubinstein, Life, Chicago, IL, 1941, p. [36] (indirect image)

Dali par Dali, Draeger, [Paris], 1970, p. 25 (detail)

Morse, A. Reynolds, A Dalí primer, The Reynolds Morse Foundation, Cleveland [Ohio], 1970, p. 18

Ninety-three oils by Salvador Dalí : 1917-1970, The Salvador Dali Museum, Cleveland, 1973, p. 127, p. 152

Salvador Dalí ... a panorama of his art, The Salvador Dali Museum, Cleveland, 1974, p. 54, p. 127, p. 152

Dopagne, Jacques, Dalí, Fernand Hazan, Paris, 1974, il. 17 (detail)

Dalí, Salvador | Passeron, René, Salvador Dalí, Filipacchi, Paris, 1978, p. 28

Salvador Dalí: rétrospective, 1920-1980, Centre Georges Pompidou, Musée National d'Art moderne, Paris, 1979, p. 165

Salvador Dalí, selected works, Filipacchi, New York, 1979, p. 28

Baron, Jacques, Anthologie plastique du surrealisme, Filipacchi, Paris, 1980, p. 13 (indirect image)

Homage to Dalí, Chartwell Books, Secaucus, New Jersey, [1980], p. 128

Alexandrian, Sarane, Dalí, Fernand Hazan, Paris, 1985, il. 17 (detail)

Surrealist drawings, The Salvador Dalí Foundation, St. Petersburg [Florida], 1988, n. p.

Dalí: the Salvador Dalí museum collection, Bulfinch, Boston. Toronto. London, 1991, il. 38

Rojas, Carlos, Salvador Dalí, or the art of spitting on your mother's portrait, The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park [Pennsylvania], 1993, il . 8

Descharnes, Robert | Néret, Gilles, Salvador Dalí, 1904 -1989, Benedikt Taschen, Köln, 1994, p. 156

Wach, Kenneth, Salvador Dalí : masterpieces from the collection of the Salvador Dalí Museum, Harry N. Abrams | Salvador Dalí Museum, New York | St. Petersburg, Florida, 1996, p. 61

Finkelstein, Haim, Salvador Dalí's art and writing, 1927-1942 : the metamorphoses of Narcissus, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996, p. 146

Guigon, Emmanuel, Óscar Domínguez, Gobierno de Canarias. Viceconsejeria de Cultura y Deportes, Islas Canarias, 1996, p. 133 (indirect image) (detail)

Gaceta de arte y su época, 1932-1936, Centro Atlántico de Arte Moderno | Gobierno de Canarias. Viceconsejería de Cultura y Deportes, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | [S.l.], 1997, p. 237 (indirect image)

Radford, Robert, Dalí, Phaidon, London, 1997, p. 150

El Objeto surrealista, IVAM Centre Julio González | Generalitat Valenciana. Conselleria de Cultura, Educació i Ciència, [València], 1997, p. 193 (indirect image)

Durozoi, Gérard, Histoire du mouvement surréaliste, Hazan, Paris, 1997, p. 297

Ades, Dawn | Bradley, Fiona, Salvador Dalí: a mythology, Tate Gallery Publishing, London, 1998, p. 30

Fanés, Fèlix, El Gran masturbador, Electa, Madrid, 2000, p. 52

James Rosenquist: paintings | James Rosenquist: selects Dalí, Salvador Dalí Museum, St. Petersburg, Florida, 2000, p. 50

Lubar, Robert S., The Salvador Dalí Museum collection, Bulfinch, Boston - New York - London, 2000, p. 63

Dalí, Bompiani, [S.l.], 2004, p. 116

Dalí, un creador dissident, Destino, Barcelona, 2004, p. 199

Fanés, Fèlix, La Pintura y sus sombras : cuatro estudios sobre Salvador Dalí, Museo de Teruel, Teruel, 2004, p. 99

Salvador Dali centennial retrospective, Ueno Royal Museum, Ueno, 2006, p. 59, p. 58 (detail)

Dalí & film, Tate Publishing, London, 2007, p. 119

Roland Penrose y el surrealismo : mirar de reojo, Fundación Pablo Ruiz Picasso, Málaga, 2008, p. 229 (indirect image), p. 230 (indirect image)

Salvador Dalí : the late work, High Museum of Art | Yale University Press, Atlanta | New Haven and London, 2010, p. 130

Surreal objects : three-dimensional works from Dalí to Man Ray, Hatje Cantz | Schirn Kunsthalle, Frankfurt | Frankfurt, 2011, p. 23

Encuentros con los años '30, La Fábrica | MNCARS, Madrid | Madrid, 2012, p. 98 (indirect image), p. 99 (indirect image)

Dalí i els seus tallers, Das Edicions, Figueres, 2013, p. 22-23 (indirect image)